Simple, non-invasive sampling of short-chain fatty acids in saliva as potential indicators of disease using HiSorb™ sorptive extraction

The determination of short-chain fatty acids and hydroxy acids in saliva is challenging due to their relatively low concentrations as well as their hydrophilic nature and limited volatility. Most LC- and GC-based protocols require time-consuming and labour-intensive analytical workflows. This study set out to develop a reliable, simple, and organic solvent-free protocol to address and provide solutions to these challenges.

A team from the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy, undertook a study working with saliva samples collected from four patient groups (acute HF, chronic HF, obese, and hypertensive) using HiSorb™ high-capacity sorptive extraction. Markes International supplied the HiSorb probes for the study.

Non-invasive disease monitoring from saliva

Heart failure (HF) affects 1–2% of the population of industrialised countries with many HF patients prone to frequent hospitalisations. This places a huge burden on healthcare systems. Determining the most appropriate care for these patients is continuously debated by medical experts. One approach is by detecting natriuretic peptides in patient blood samples. Unfortunately, this requires invasive sampling with varying results. Scientists have found a link between compositional changes in gut microbiota (known as gut dysbiosis) and HF1, highlighting comorbidities of the disease including obesity and hypertension. Gut dysbiosis causes an imbalance of naturally occurring short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). This effect is also detectable in other biological fluids, such as saliva, mirroring the changes seen in gut microbiota. As a result, analysis of saliva can provide a promising non-invasive approach to monitor several systemic diseases in the host.

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